Evolution Handbook

Chapter 2c:

The Big Bang and Stellar Evolution

Why the Big Bang is a fizzle and stars cannot evolve out of gas


There are several other origin of matter theories which are but variants of the Big Bang. Essentially the same problems apply to them:

The Steady State Universe Theory. Originated by *Fred Hoyle in 1948, this theory says that, in the space between galaxies, new matter is quietly but continually appearing out of nothing. In 1965, Hoyle publicly abandoned the theory as ridiculous. (On our website, we list his reasons for that decision.)

The Oscillating Universe Theory. This is another idea by *George Gamow. It says that when the universe finally runs down, another Big Bang will start it going again. The main difference is that, while the first Bang occurred when nothing exploded into all the matter in the universe, the later ones would be the result of all the matter packing into a tiny point and then exploding again.

1 - *Robert Jastrow, founder and director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies disproved this theory with the fact that, when all the hydrogen is used up, there will be nothing to replace it.

2 - Why would matter, that is ever expanding outward toward infinity, suddenly stop and reverse its direction?

3 - If all matter had finally moved into the outer perimeter of the universe, that is where the center of gravity would be. Why would matter want to reverse and move back away from the gravitational field?

4 - The universe could not collapse inward unless there were ten times as much matter in the universe as there now is. This is the "missing mass" problem. Evolutionists try to solve it by theorizing that 97% of the mass in the universe is "dark matter" which cannot be located, seen, or identified with any scientific instruments.

5 - All the matter, shooting back inward, is supposed to collide in one miniature point. In reality, inertia would carry everything past that central stopping point. Why would everything go to one little dot and stop there? More fairy tales. Remember, it was *Gamow who also invented the Big Bang theory.

The Inflationary Universe Theory. This one, partly invented by *Allan Guth and *Paul Steinhardt in 1984, says that the universe (including all space and time) began as a single infinitesimal particle. No one has figured out where that particle came from and how everything got jammed into it. First, it was in its "cold big whoosh" stage. When it reached five inches, it suddenly got hot (the "hot big bang" stage)—and blew up. Those two men now speculate that the particle initially swelled out of nothingness into its "whoosh" pinpoint stage.

All of these theories are cheap science fiction. Along with the Big Bang theory, these other theories violate natural laws—including the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics (which we will discuss in chapter 18 of this paperback). Even *Stephen W. Hawking of Cambridge University, one of the most influential theoretical physicists in the world, has rejected the Big Bang theory (*National Geographic, December 1988, p. 762).


How did the stars get there? Not from evolution. Here are more reasons why the stellar evolution theories do not agree with the facts:

1 - Galaxies never exist alone. They are always found in pairs or in larger collections of galaxies. Yet cloud condensation would not favor formation of nearby pairs and groups of stars.

2 - As a rule, the amount of matter within each galaxy is not enough to explain why its stars clumped together as they did. The space-to-mass ratio within the galaxy is too great to bind them together.

3 - The usual shape of the galaxies is that of a saucer with a central sphere. This shape defies explanation by the laws of physics. Island universes should not have their highly coordinated, inter-orbiting structure arrangement. The stars should all fly apart. Each galaxy is a carefully organized city in the sky. In an attempt to explain this pattern, theorists declare that there must be "dark matter" pressing the galaxies together! But there is no evidence that such fanciful stuff exists. It takes a lot of imagination to hold evolutionary theory together. The theorists declare that "97% of the universe is missing." They are speaking of the dark matter ("exotic matter") which they cannot find (*Marcia Bartusiak, "Missing: 97% of the Universe," Science Digest, 91:51, December 1983).

4 - Why are disk galaxies shaped like a disk? Astronomers say there is no explanation for what could place stars into that galactic structural pattern. It surely is beautiful, with the globular clusters outside the disk, hanging in space like chandeliers,—but how could random motions produce such balanced, artistic harmony?

5 - Each galaxy, with all its stars, is moving together in a certain direction; but the corporate velocities within a galaxy should gravitationally unbind the stars within it, yet this does not happen.

6 - All the evidence indicates that these galaxies were formed in their present shape, and are held together by a power unexplainable by natural forces as we know them.

7 - More than one half of all the stars that we can individually examine through our telescopes are binary or multiple star systems. The other word for evolution is "randomness." How could random accidents and gaseous contractions produce two, three, or four stars circling one another? They should crash into one another or fly apart. Try placing two magnets close to one another; will they orbit one another or smash together?

8 - Differential binaries. Most stars circling one another are different in composition. Spectrums reveal different physical properties for each one. Most binaries are composed of different types of stars. Evolution cannot explain this.

9 - Globular clusters are massive clusters of stars. There is no possible way they could be formed by evolutionary means or even exist. Yet there they are. Each one contains from 20,000 to 1 million stars! In our Milky Way Galaxy alone it is estimated that there are 200 of these giant clusters. Other galaxies have comparable numbers of them.

10 - There are no binaries or multiple systems in globular clusters. This fact is unexplainable by stellar origin theories.

11 - Globular clusters are extremely stable, yet they ought to be the most unstable objects in the universe. The stars within globular clusters ought to all be crashing into one another. The organization of stars within clusters is fabulous. Any nonthinking force capable of bringing these tens of thousands of stars into the globular cluster—would have crashed them all together!

12 - It cannot be said that evolutionary forces gradually "built them up"; for globular clusters always have a minimum size below which they do not occur.

13 - Globular clusters rotate separately, and even pass through the galactic plane—without colliding with any stars! Evolution cannot explain this! These clusters are fantastic balls of stars, each one scattered above and below the galactic plane of an island universe.

14 - Elliptical galaxies are truly huge! Far larger than the globular clusters scattered about island universes, ellipticals are super-gigantic balls of stars. There is absolutely no way that the random, evolutionary movements and explosions could produce ellipticals. How could all those stars get into that cluster, with absolutely nothing outside the cluster extending out for many light-years? How could they all be there, without crashing into one another or flying out from the cluster? They could never come together by random chance. Think, reader, think. What are we confronted with here?

15 - Why are galaxies not equally spaced all through the universe instead of being clumped into super clusters? Even super clusters have a definite order and arrangement. One or two giant elliptical galaxies are usually in the center of each cluster.

16 - Stars never get closer than a certain distance from one another (3.5 light-years apart). This highly organized arrangement could never be caused by evolutionary forces.

17 - Evidence disproves the evolutionary stellar size theory. The evolutionary theory is that stars gradually get larger until they become red giants; then they collapse into very small stars. This so-called "evolution of stars" is charted in accordance with the theorized Hertzspring-Russell diagram. But it has recently been discovered that a physical barrier exists between the red giants and the white dwarfs they are said to evolve into. "Mass-shedding" is theoretically supposed to occur, as the star shrinks down, but it is now known that this does not happen. Instead, the star’s immense gravitational field quickly reabsorbs whatever is thrown off.

18 - The First Law of Thermodynamics (the law of conservation of mass/energy) maintains that the universe and our world began in perfect completeness and quality. It says matter could not have started itself. It forbids the self-origin of matter or life.

19 - The Second Law of Thermodynamics (the law of entropy) says that all systems will eventually become totally random and disorganized. It repudiates the possibility that either matter or life could evolve into greater complexity. Everything runs down and wears out. *Albert Einstein declared that, of all the laws of physics, the two laws of thermodynamics would never be negated or replaced. (See chapter 18, The Laws of Nature, for much more on this powerful evidence against evolution.)

20 - Stellar evolution is non-observable science. Many evolutionists have admitted that no evidence exists that evolution has ever occurred anywhere in the universe. Stars are not now evolving in outer space, and animals and plants are not evolving in our world.


(For additional information, see *#3/10 What about Black Holes?*) (See p. 9 for explanation of this paragraph.)

Black holes are a theoretical extreme. If an object could become large enough, it could, in theory, collapse into a cavernous something that could absorb nearby matter. Do such horrible things actually exist? The whole thing is a theory, for which there is no substantial evidence.

Evolutionist theorists point to locations in the universe, where large amounts of radiational activity (X-rays) are occurring, and declare that they are black holes. The cause of that stronger radiation is not known; it is only speculative to say it comes from a black hole.

Yet, if black holes absorb everything, there should be no X-rays in their area. Even the theorists admit they could not see a black hole if they were close to one.

Since the entire universe is so orderly and all the stars never exceed a certain size, why should we expect that star-eating black holes would exist, destroying great quantities of stars?

It is of interest that some of these suspected black holes are located rather close to stars,—yet they have not gobbled them up.

Black holes are just another non-existent theory.

Like the Big Bang, the theorized early non-oxygen environment; the origin of life from non-living materials; the chance production of protein molecules; and evolution of life forms from one phylum, class, order, or family into other ones,—black holes look good on paper but do not exist in reality.

This is the evolutionists’ reasoning: "We know that black holes (‘singularities’) exist, because some sources emit a lot of X-rays. If a lot of X-rays are coming from a single source, it must be a black hole." Based on this, they have invented accretion disks, capturing and evaporating black holes and mini-black holes. The only evidence for black holes is X-rays from outer space. Remember that.


(For additional information, see *#1/4 History of Cosmological Theories [extensive data] / #2/2 A Final Look at Matter and the Solar System: What Happens When a New Moon Arrives, Three Men Who Gave Us Our Modern Stellar Theories, How Unscientific Can We Become?*)


There are seven theories about the origin of the Solar System (Nebular Hypothesis, Fision Theory, Capture Theory, Accretion Theory, Planetary Collision Theory, Stellar Collision Theory, and Gas Cloud Theory) which, on pp. 79-84 of our 3-volume book set (and on our website), we discuss in some detail. Here are several key points:

1 - The Nebular Hypothesis (also called the Planetesimal Theory) says that, as the gas swirled around, eddies of gas caused the sun and planets. All seven theories require circling gas which contracts into the sun. We have already disproved the basics underlying this concept. Many say that material from the sun made the planets and moons. But the elemental composition of each of the planets is different from the sun and from one another. One could not come from the other. In addition, the sun would have to rotate extremely fast to hurl off planets and moons, yet it rotates very slowly. More on this later.

2 - The Fision Theory says that our sun burst and sent out the planets and moons. But they would fly outward forever; they would not stop and begin circling the sun or one another.

3 - The Capture Theory says our planets and moons were wandering around and were captured by our sun. But they would then crash into the sun; they would not circle it or one another. We never see planets or moons flying by us today, yet we now know of at least 150 moons in our solar system (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2006).

4 - The Accretion Theory says that small chunks of material gradually got together and formed our planet. Then more chunks formed our moon, which began circling us. This idea is pretty far out also. The planets, moons, and asteroids are all in carefully arranged orbits. The meteors fly fast in linear motion. No chunks are just floating around, and those chunks would not stick together anyway.

5 - The Planetary Collision Theory says our world collided with a small planet, producing our moon. But such an impact would totally destroy our planet. How could such an impact produce a circling moon? This would have had to be repeated for all 150 moons in our solar system. The theory would require thousands of planets passing through our solar system, for enough direct hits to produce all our moons. Why are not such flybys occurring today?

6 - The Stellar Collision Theory says that two stars collided, and produced our planets and moons. But they would not then pause and circle one of the suns which was waiting placidly to receive them. They would either be hurled away from the sun or crash back into it.

7 - The Gas Cloud Theory says gas clouds were pulled in from outer space by our sun’s gravity; then they paused, formed themselves into planets and moons, and began circling one another. But gas does not clump, and linear motion toward the sun would not change into circular motion around it.

These solar system theories do not explain where stars, planets, and moons originated or how they arrived at their present, intricate pattern. Such precision could not come about by chance.

Every moon is located at the precise distance to keep it from flying into or away from its planet. How could all this originate from a single explosion or collision? None of these theories fit into the laws of physics, as we know them.

On pp. 97-101 of his book, Asimov’s New Guide to Science, the leading evolutionist science writer of the 20th century describes and tears to pieces each of the stellar/solar system theories. (It is quoted on our website.)